A 1-dimensional Vector Addition System with States (1-VASS) can be seen as an directed and integer weighted graph that is equipped with a non-negative integer counter.

A configuration of a 1-VASS is a pair \((q, x)\) that is the current node \(q\) and the current non-negative counter value \(x\).

A run in a 1-VASS is a sequence of configurations \((q_0, x_0), (q_1, x_1), \ldots, (q_k, x_k)\) where for each \(i \in \{ 1, \ldots, k\}\), there is an edge from \(x_{i-1}\) to \(x_i\) with weight \(x_i - x_{i-1}\).

Let \(n\) the size of a 1-VASS, encoded in unary, that is the number of states plus the absolute value of all weights.

The coverability problem asks: in a given 1-VASS, is there is a run from a given starting state that ends in a given target state (with any counter value).

There is a straightforward $O(n^{2})$-time algorithm for coverability in 1-VASS.

Does is there an $o(n^{2})$-time algorithm for coverability in 1-VASS?